Grönland & Hjaldinger

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Grönland & Hjaldinger

Beitrag von heiko am 28/5/2014, 10:52

Das Thema Fisch & Grönland von der Anna find ich spannend, danke dafür. Hab hier einen netten Artikel dazu gefunden, dass Archäologen (tm) glauben, das eher Wirtschaft und die Identität, anstatt Hunger und Krankheit darin ursächlich sind, das sie 'nach Hause' gefahren sind:
Their disappearance remains a mystery to this day. Until now, many experts had assumed that the cooling of the climate and the resulting crop failures and famines had ushered in the end of the Scandinavian colony. But now a Danish-Canadian team of scientists believes that it can refute this theory of decline.
The scientists conducted isotope analyses on hundreds of human and animal bones found on the island. Their study, published in the Journal of the North Atlantic, paints the most detailed picture to date of the Nordic settlers' dietary habits.
As the research shows, hunger could hardly have driven the ancestors of the Vikings out of their settlements on the edge of the glaciers. The bone analyses prove that, when the warm period came to an end, the Greenlandic farmers and ranchers switched to a seafood-based diet with surprising rapidity. From then on, the settlers focused their efforts on hunting the seals that appeared in large numbers off the coasts of Greenland during their annual migrations.
When settlement began in the early 11th century, only between 20 and 30 percent of their diet came from the sea. But seal hunting played a growing role in the ensuing centuries. "They ate more and more seal meat, with the animals constituting up to 80 percent of their diet in the 14th century," explains team member Jan Heinemeier, a dating expert from the University of Aarhus, in Denmark.
His fellow team member Niels Lynnerup, an anthropologist and forensic scientist at the University of Copenhagen, confirms that the Vikings of Greenland had plenty to eat even as the climate grew colder. "Perhaps they were just sick and tired of living at the ends of the earth and having almost nothing but seals to eat," he says.
The bone analyses show that they rarely ate meat from their own herds of livestock. The climate had become harsher on the island starting in the mid-13th century. Summer temperatures fell, violent storms raged around the houses and the winters were bone-chillingly cold. For the cattle that had been brought to Greenland, there was less and less to eat in the pastures and meadows along the fjords.
On the smaller farms, cattle were gradually replaced with sheep and goats, which were easier to rear. The isotope analyses show that pigs, valued for their meat, were fed fish and seal remains for a while longer but had disappeared from the island by around 1300.
The farmers, who had switched their focus to seal hunting, apparently did hardly anything to avert the decline of their livestock economy. The scientists' analyses of animal bones show that the Greenlanders didn't even try to help their cattle survive the long, icy winter by feeding them something of a starvation diet of bushes, horse manure, seaweed and fish waste, a widespread practice in regions of Northern Europe with similar climatic challenges until a few decades ago.
It also appears that epidemics were not responsible for the decline of farm life on the island. The scientists did not discover more signs of disease in the Viking bones uncovered on the island than elsewhere. "We found normal skeletons, which looked just like comparable finds from Scandinavian countries," says Lynnerup.
So, if it wasn't starvation or disease, what triggered the abandonment of the Greenland settlements in the second half of the 15th century? The scientists suspect that a combination of causes made life there unbearable for the Scandinavian immigrants. For instance, there was hardly any demand anymore for walrus tusks and seal skins, the colony's most important export items. What's more, by the mid-14th century, regular ship traffic with Norway and Iceland had ceased.
As a result, Greenland's residents were increasingly isolated from their mother countries. Although they urgently needed building lumber and iron tools, they could now only get their hands on them sporadically. "It became more and more difficult for the Greenlanders to attract merchants from Europe to the island," speculates Jette Arneborg, an archeologist at the National Museum of Denmark, in Copenhagen. "But, without trade, they couldn't survive in the long run."
The settlers were probably also worried about the increasing loss of their Scandinavian identity. They saw themselves as farmers and ranchers rather than fishermen and hunters. Their social status depended on the land and livestock they owned, but it was precisely these things that could no longer help them produce what they needed to survive.
Although the descendants of the Vikings had adjusted to life in the north, there were limits to their assimilation. "They would have had to live more and more like the Inuit, distancing themselves from their cultural roots," says Arneborg. "This growing contradiction between identity and reality was apparently what led to their decline."
Quelle
Ich finde das teilweise ganz gut vergleichbar mit der Situation der Hjaldinger, teilweise auch nicht.
Ökonomisch müssen die Hjaldinger ja ziemlich autark sein in Aventurien, zurück fahren und Güldenlandhandel treiben is ja nich. Also sind sie vielleicht vergleichbar isoliert gewesen wie die Grönland-Wikinger. Und auf den Agrarsektor sind sie natürlich dann sehr angewiesen. Handel zu etablieren zu anderen Völkern sollte dann auch sehr wichtig werden. Sich mit allen durch Piraterie zu verkrachen, sollte nicht die klügste Idee sein.
Und was deren Identität angeht, so sollte die Geschichte der Hjaldinger eher noch identitätsstiftend und -fördernd für die Gemeinschaft gewesen sein, meiner Einschätzung nach. Gerade auch weil eine Rückkehr ausgeschlossen ist (für die meisten wahrscheinlich zumindest undenkbar).
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heiko

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Re: Grönland & Hjaldinger

Beitrag von upendo am 28/6/2014, 13:05

hmm... also Pirterie ist eine ziemlich gute Alternative solang man mit seien Nachbarn Handel betreitbt und die die man überfällt nicht wissen wo man herkommt und einem dementsprechend auch nicht hinterherfahren können :-)

upendo

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Re: Grönland & Hjaldinger

Beitrag von Amataraeon am 29/6/2014, 16:13

Was Piraterie angeht: Ich hatte mit Heiko eine längere Diskussion über die Nähe zum Kanon. Ich fasse das Ergebnis in zwei Optionen zusammen, für die wir uns, so wie ich es sehe, baldmöglichst entscheiden müssten:

1. Aventurien ist tatsächlich so weit und intensiv besiedelt, wie es die geschichtlichen Ereignisse, etwa in der Wiki Aventurica, darstellen -> Piraterie ist nicht möglich, außer gegenüber Firnelf*s und als sehr gefährliche Flusspiraterie.

2. Aventurien ist zum Zeitpunkt der Hjalding*s intensiver und umfangreicher besiedelt, diese (Tuladmid*s/Zwerg*s/Elf*s/...-)Siedlungen brechen aber aus ungeklärten Gründen in sich zusammen und hinterlassen keine Spuren in der Geschichte.

Dasselbe gilt in geringerem Umfang auch für den Handel.
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Re: Grönland & Hjaldinger

Beitrag von upendo am 5/8/2014, 18:09

Ich find ja die Idee mit nördlicher gelegenen Tulamiden-Enklaven sehr nett (da wäre dann ja vermutlich auch Poraterie wieder ein Option)

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Re: Grönland & Hjaldinger

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